Evolution is a journey in many aspects. It is incredible that life is able to adjust to its surroundings and undergo many changes that enable it to flourish in the world. The fact that different starting locations might lead to the same destination is even more amazing.

It makes conceivable that certain abilities, like venom or camouflage, would evolve into being possessed by multiple creatures. However, nature occasionally goes above and beyond that. Occasionally, the same organism will evolve in completely unrelated species at the same time.

10.Nature Enjoys Creating Crabs

The extent to which the natural world adores crabs is immeasurable. Others adore them as well, but typically with butter, which is a different type of affection. Crabs are so valued in nature that they have undergone many evolutionary events, a prime example of wild parallel evolution.

The remarkable process by which something transforms into a crab is known as carcinization. It is so common that it has its own name. According to some, crabs have undergone five or six distinct stages of evolution.

There are true crabs, the kind that appear on menus at different restaurants. False crabs also exist, having descended from more lobster-like ancestors. Among them are hermit crabs. Then there are hefty small hairy stone crabs, Red Lobster all-stars King crabs, tiny porcelain crabs, and dromiidae, or sponge crabs.

Although there are various reasons why so many different organisms evolve into crabs, the most obvious one seems to be logic. There are benefits to a crab’s form and structure that surpass the advantages of those species’ progenitors. Put another way, compared to other crustaceans with distinct body shapes and characteristics, crabs are better developed.

9.How Coffee, Tea, and Other Plants Produced Caffeine Changed Over Time

Caffeine is the most widely ingested psychoactive stimulant worldwide and is adored by humans. We add it to drinks and snacks, but we usually just consume it straight from the source—in coffee and tea. However, those aren’t the only natural caffeine sources available worldwide.

Different plants with no biological ties to one another independently developed caffeine. Not just tea and coffee, but cacao, which gives chocolate a boost, yerba mate, and perhaps sixty additional plants altogether.

Research has proven that the enzymes that evolved to produce caffeine in coffee and chocolate are unrelated, despite the fact that the chemical pathway used by plants to produce caffeine is comparable across species.

When it came to tea, scientists discovered that the caffeine in the two drinks originated from completely distinct genes when the coffee genome was deciphered. Although coffee’s enzymes differed from those of other plants, this fundamental genetic variation reveals an entirely distinct process between the two species.

8.Two Evolutions of Six-Legged Bodies

Anything with six legs is usually regarded as an intruder whether at home, during a picnic, or somewhere else. Few people actually enjoy bugs, and even those that we do want to interact with—like honeybees, for example—we still prefer not to get too close.

Insects are viewed differently by nature. In fact, it is possible that the six-legged form evolved twice due to its extreme rarity. The 6-legged variant is a very recent tendency in evolution, and thus contradicts the widely accepted theory that ancient insect relatives, such as centipedes and millipedes, had significantly more legs.

Crustaceans and insects descended from a single ancestor. Hexapods, which include our six-legged insect pals, are the offspring of this branch.However, research on the mitochondrial DNA of some organisms—specifically, springtails or collembola—reveals that they split off from crustaceans far earlier than other insects.

7.The Evolution of Teeth in Various Species and Times

Our teeth are not something we think about very often. You consider brushing them, you’ll undoubtedly consider them in the event that one breaks or is lost, and you might even detect a pleasant smile. However, most people’s to-do lists do not include considering their evolutionary origins.

There is evidence to show that teeth did not originate from a single location. For both fish and mammals, they might have evolved at two distinct points in their evolutionary histories. It appears that the earliest mammals to develop teeth were twice as likely to have been small, shrew-like animals. It appears that molar evolution occurred simultaneously in creatures entirely distinct from one another in the northern and southern hemispheres. Tribosphenic molars, which are capable of both cutting and grinding, were formerly believed to have originated exclusively in the northern hemisphere. Fossils from Madagascar and Australia, however, dispute that.

Plasmoderms, or petrified fish, have demonstrated that the theory that all teeth descended from a single vertebrate ancestor may also be false. These fish were sporting chompers 408 million years ago, much before the mammals. Teeth are discrete, cone-shaped protrusions made of dentine that are part of its family tree, which arose from ridges of material resembling teeth.

6.Dinosaurs Multiplely Developed the Capability to Fly

The theory that chickens and other contemporary birds can have descended from dinosaurs appears to have the support of the majority of people. Some of the extinct lizards acquired wings and were able to fly, and now we deep-fry them.

The actual development of flight is more complicated than a T. Rex turning into a chicken. It appears that there may have been multiple evolutionary stages for flight, based on fossil data. Although the origins of current birds are evidently those we already know, there is evidence that prehistoric raptors in South America also had the capacity to fly.

Subsequent studies on the origins of birds revealed that the deinonychosaurs, the branch of dinosaurs that gave rise to modern birds, may have evolved flight at least three times. Researchers had to examine skeletal characteristics and other physical characteristics that resemble modern bird behavior to conclude that a small southern hemisphere dinosaur known as Rahonavis, as well as the four-winged Microraptor, would have been able to fly.

Although many dinosaurs with feathers were undoubtedly able to glide, the rarity of those that could flap their wings and take to the air was probably not as great as previously believed.

5.Red-blooded Vertebrates Had Two Evolutions

Vertebrates are made of red blood. With a few odd outliers, such as green-blooded skinks, most people with spines are red-blooded. We almost never doubt the fact that our blood is red because of the iron in our hemoglobin. There doesn’t seem to be much more to it once you understand why blood is red; it seems like one of our fundamental building blocks.

Given how effectively blood carries oxygen throughout an organism, it’s also reasonable to assume that this mechanism is not exclusive from an evolutionary perspective. It has been determined that approximately 500 million years ago, red-blooded animals underwent two separate periods of evolution. While red blood is used by most vertebrates, including humans, to carry oxygen, other fish, like lampreys, have jawless bodies and use a different mechanism. Fishes’ progenitors evolved a completely different collection of proteins to control oxygenated blood.

4.At Least 100 Different Venom Evolutions Have Taken Place

There are many deadly animals in the world. Some have developed powerful weapons in the form of venom, but others are still dangerous due to their teeth and claws. Reactions to different venoms vary. Hemototoxic venoms can damage your heart and cause bleeding, whereas neurotoxic venoms target your nerve system. Snakes, fish, spiders, insects, amphibians, and even certain mammals can venomously harm you.

One of the most common evolutionary features in the globe, venom systems have undergone more than 100 evolutionary changes in these diverse life forms. Evolution is as intricate as it seems. Digestive enzymes are linked to some venom and not to others. Depending on the animal, it can spread by stingers, fangs, or skin. The beginnings remain shrouded in mystery.

3.There May Be Several Places Where Wolves and Dogs Have Coevolved

It is commonly accepted that dogs originated from wolves approximately 130,000 years ago and were domesticated between 12,000 and 15,000 years ago. The possibility that this has occurred more than once is less well understood. It’s possible that dogs were domesticated in both the East and the West, converting wolves into dogs in two unconnected regions.

Whether domestication happened in East Asia, Central Asia, or Europe has been a topic of debate in the past. However, all three could be right. By comparing ancient dog DNA discovered in skeletal remains, it is possible to infer that Eastern and Western dogs originated from distinct evolutionary trees according to their genetic differences.

Later research also showed that dogs from Eastern Asia and the Middle East have distinct genetic origins, suggesting that distinct wolf populations gave rise to each region’s dog populations. That may theoretically imply that wolves evolved into dogs in multiple locations.

2.Life May Have Changed Several Times

Let’s go further back than we have before. Not to the development of eyes, fur, teeth, or bones. Let us travel back in time to the very beginning of life and pose a question. Did life evolve in a single, clear moment? Or did it occur frequently?

Science has suggested that there might not have been a single point in time when life first started. Alternatively, life might have begun repeatedly in several unrelated locations. It’s possible that the earliest life was spreading like wildfire in a variety of unusual and distinctive ways in its most basic forms. And perhaps many of these were only eliminated during our first mass extinction event, leaving much fewer alternatives to replace what was lost.

There was once a widespread assumption that all life on Earth, regardless of its form, could be traced back billions of years to a single bacterium that served as the origin of all life. However, there is a chance that there was no common ancestor at all according to this alternative theory.

This argument is supported by the fact that life exists outside of “normal” settings. Things that flourish in the world’s deepest enclosed recesses or in the harshest, oceanic vents. The infrequently researched bacteria there may be components of entirely different trees of life.

1.The Aldabra Rail Almost Become Extinct But Then Reemerged

There are other cases of convergent evolution that have led to comparable features or forms in species than the Aldabra rail, but these are the only ones that we have encountered thus far. This complete bird underwent multiple stages of evolution, including existence, extinction, and rebirth from a distinct ancestor.

The Aldabra atoll in the Indian Ocean was home to the first Aldabra rail, a bird without wings. Apart from being flightless, which is why it could not have survived the atoll’s flooding 136,000 years ago, it was not very remarkable. The rail became extinct and all terrestrial life on the atoll was destroyed by the flood.

Time travel: 36,000 years ago. The world’s landscape was changed by an ice age, and the atoll was restored when the ocean level lowered. A bird known as the white-throated rail departed from Madagascar and made landfall on the atoll of Aldabra. This exact same event occurred once before, when the same bird, long ago, fled Madagascar and lived on the atoll where it eventually became flightless and vanished as the Aldabra rail.

The natural world took the same course with a fresh population of white-throated rails, and the rails lost their capacity to fly once more. For the second time, the Aldabra rail had reemerged into existence.

The extinct and the new versions of the flightless rails are very similar to and different from their flying ancestors, with thicker ankles intended for walking and a heavier overall structure not ideal for flight, according to comparisons of the bones between the old and new flightless rails and the flying white-throated rails.

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By linh

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